Development of cranial foramina

foraminaThere are plenty of reports about anatomical and morphological variation of cranial foramina; however, their developmental mechanisms fundamental for interpretation of such a variation and understanding of vital medical conditions related to their aberrant formation are poorly known. Cranial foramina transmitting the vessels and nerves emerge within the cranial bones which themselves show complex origin and development. Recent embryological study in chicks by Akbareian et al. (2015) presents development of cranial foramina in mesoderm derived occipital bone arising through endochondral ossification. Unexpectedly, the formation mechanism did not show any extensive apoptotic cell activity and target proliferation. Instead as a “clearing” mechanism forming the cavity of foramina was proposed localized restriction of ossification caused by the presence of vessel and nerve elements with minimal mesenchymal cell death. Further importance for morphological studies of foramina can bear a discovery that the shape of vessel dictates the overall shape of the foramen.

Hana Pisova

 

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